2.6 References & Attributions


AARP. (2022). How continuing care retirement communities work. https://www.aarp.org/caregiving/basics/info-2017/continuing-care-retirement-communities.html

Adams, J. G. (2013). Emergency department overuse: perceptions and solutions. JAMA, 309(11), 1173. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.2476

Al-Amin, M., Zinn, J., Rosko, M. D., & Aaronson, W. (2010). Specialty hospital market proliferation: Strategic implications for general hospitals. Health Care Management Review, 35(4), 294–300. https://doi.org/10.1097/hmr.0b013e3181e04a06

American College of Emergency Physicians. (2017). Urgent care centers. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 70(1), 115–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.03.049

American Hospital Association. (2015). Teaching hospitals: Preparing tomorrow’s physicians today. American Hospital Association: Trendwatch. https://www.aha.org/system/files/ research/reports/tw/15june-tw-teachinghosp.pdf

American Hospital Association. (2022). Fast facts on U.S. hospitals infographics. https://www.aha.org/infographics/2020-07-24-fast-facts-infographics

Baicker, K., Cutler, D., & Song, Z. (2010). Workplace wellness programs can generate savings. Health Affairs, 29(2), 304-311. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0626

Bodenheimer, B., & Pham, H. H. (2010). Primary care: current problems and proposed solutions. Health Affairs, 29(5), 799–805. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0026

Borkowski, S. (2012). Solutions for ED overcrowding: increasing urgent care centers. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 38(2), 116–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2011.12.009

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Health, United States, 2020-2021. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/sources-definitions/hospital.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Emergency department. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/sources-definitions/emergency-department.htm

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (n.d.). Palliative care vs. hospice care. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare-Medicaid-Coordination/Fraud-Prevention/Medicaid-Integrity-Education/Downloads/infograph-PalliativeCare-%5BJune-2015%5D.pdf

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2019). What are long-term care hospitals? https://www.medicare.gov/Pubs/pdf/11347-Long-Term-Care-Hospitals.pdf

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2021). Home- and community-based services. https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/American-Indian-Alaska-Native/AIAN/LTSS-TA-Center/info/hcbs

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2022). Hospice. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/Hospice

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2023). Accountable care organizations (ACOs): General information. https://innovation.cms.gov/innovation-models/aco

Chukmaitov, A. S., Menachemi, N., Brown, L. S., Saunders, C., & Brooks, R. G. (2008). A comparative study of quality outcomes in freestanding ambulatory surgery centers and hospital‐based outpatient departments: 1997–2004. Health Services Research43(5p1), 1485-1504.

Cluett, J. (2023). Outpatient total hip replacement surgery. https://www.verywellhealth.com/considering-hip-replacement-surgery-2549565

Congressional Research Service. (2014). Older Americans Act: Title III Nutrition Services Program. https://www.everycrsreport.com/files/20140324_RS21202_b87a6d6e66dd74fc5102427f3e00166841255332.pdf

Corwin, G. S., Parker, D. M., & Brown, J. R. (2016). Site of treatment for non-urgent conditions by Medicare beneficiaries: Is there a role for urgent care centers? The American Journal of Medicine, 129(9), 966-973. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.03.013

Cullen, K. A., Hall, M. J., & Golosinskiy, A. (2009). Ambulatory surgery in the United States, 2006. National Health Statistics Report no. 11, January 2009, for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US Department of Health and Human Services (revised 4 September 2009). https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr011.pdf

Dean, J. M., Hreha, K., Hong, I., Li, C., Jupiter, D., Prochaska, J., & Reistett, T. (2021). Post-acute care use patterns among Hospital Service Areas by older adults in the United States: a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Services Research, 21(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06159-z

George, R. R., Winden, T. J., Manos, L., Herrman, A., Campos, M., & Ditt, C. B. (2021). Improving coordination during care transition between ambulatory and inpatient care facilities: Evaluating the utilization and scope of EHR facilitated longitudinal plan of care. International Journal of Nursing Education, 13(3), 153–160. https://doi.org/10.37506/ijone.v13i3.16328

Hoff, T., & Prout, K. (2019). Comparing retail clinics with other sites of care: a systematic review of cost, quality, and patient satisfaction. Medical Care, 57(9), 734-741. https://doi.org/10.1097/mlr.0000000000001164

Hoff, T., Weller, W., & Depuccio, M. (2012). The patient-centered medical home: a review of recent research. Medical Care Research & Review, 69(6), 619–644. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077558712447688

Hollenbeck, B. K., Hollingsworth, J. M., Dunn, R. L., Ye, Z., & Birkmeyer, J. D. (2010). Ambulatory surgery center market share and rates of outpatient surgery in the elderly. Surgical Innovation17(4), 340-345. https://doi.org/10.1177/1553350610377211

Hollenbeck, B. K., Dunn, R. L., Suskind, A. M., Strope, S. A., Zhang, Y., & Hollingsworth, J. M. (2015). Ambulatory surgery centers and their intended effects on outpatient surgery. Health Services Research50(5), 1491-1507. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.12278

Institute of Medicine. (1994). Defining primary care: An interim report. Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Future of Primary Care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25101391/

Joynt, K. E., Harris, Y., Orav, E. J., & Jha, A. K. (2011). Quality of care and patient outcomes in critical access rural hospitals. JAMA, 306(1), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.902

Kangovi, S., Barg, F., Carter, T., Long, J. A., Shannon, R., & Grande, D. (2013). Understanding  why patients of low socioeconomic status prefer hospitals over ambulatory care. Health Affairs, 32(7), 1196–1203. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0825

Koop, C. (2022). Medicaid and assisted living: What’s covered and what’s not. AgingCare. https://www.agingcare.com/articles/medicaid-assisted-living-155740.htm

Le, S. T., & Hsia, R. (2016). Community characteristics associated with where urgent care centers are located: a cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open, 6(4), e010663. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010663

Llovera, I., Loscalzo, K., Gao, J., Li, T., Brave, M., Becker, L., & Barata, I. (2019). Increased access to urgent care centers decreases low acuity diagnoses in a nearby hospital emergency department. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine37(3), 486-488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2018.11.023

Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. (2020). Report to the Congress: Medicare payment policy. http://medpac.gov/docs/default-source/reports/ jun20_reporttocongress_sec.pdf?sfvrsn=0

Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. (2021). Home health care services payment system: Payment basics. https://www.medpac.gov/wp- content/uploads/2021/11/ medpac_payment_basics_21_hha_final_sec.pdf

Meissner, W., Coluzzi, F., Fletcher, D., Huygen, F., Morlion, B., Neugebauer, E., Perez, A. M., & Pergolizzi, J. (2015). Improving the management of post-operative acute pain: priorities for change. Current Medical Research and Opinion31(11), 2131-2143. https://doi.org/10.1185/03007995.2015.1092122

Morley, C., Unwin, M., Peterson, G. M., Stankovich, J., & Kinsman, L. (2018). Emergency department crowding: A systematic review of causes, consequences and solutions. PLoS ONE, 13(8), e0203316. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203316

Mortensen, K. (2014). Access to primary and specialty care and emergency department utilization of Medicaid enrollees needing specialty care. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 25(2), 801–813. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2014.0097

Munnich, E. L., & Parente, S. T. (2014). Procedures take less time at ambulatory surgery centers, keeping costs down and ability to meet demand up. Health Affairs, 33(5), 764–769. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2013.1281

National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Hospice. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/hospice

National Center for Health Statistics. (2017). Health, United States, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus17.pdf

National Institute on Aging. (2017a). What Is long-term care? https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/what-long-term-care

National Institute on Aging. (2017b). Residential facilities, assisted living, nursing homes. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/residential-facilities-assisted-living-and-nursing-homes

National Institute on Aging. (2021). What are palliative care and hospice care? https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/what-are-palliative-care-and-hospice-care

Nourazari, S., Hoch, D. B., Capawanna, S., Sipahi, R., & Benneyan, J. C. (2016). Can improved specialty access moderate emergency department overuse?: Effect of neurology appointment delays on ED visits. Neurology: Clinical Practice6(6), 498-505. https://doi.org/10.1212/cpj.0000000000000295

Plotzke, M., & Courtemanche, C. (2011). Does procedure profitability impact whether an outpatient surgery is performed at an ambulatory surgery center or hospital? Health Economics, 20(7), 817–830. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.1646

Rechtoris, M. (2017). 51 things to know about the ASC industry, Becker’s ASC  Review, 21. https://www.beckersasc.com/asc-turnarounds-ideas-to-improve-performance/50-things-to-know-about-the-asc-industry-2017.html)

RAND Corporation. (2010). Health care on aisle 7: the growing phenomenon of retail clinics. RAND Health Research Highlights. Clinical Scholars Review, 3(1), 10–13. https://doi.org/10.1891/1939-2095.3.1.10

Rhodes, K. V., Bisgaier, J., Lawson, C. C., Soglin, D., Krug, S., & Van Haitsma, M. (2013). Patients who can’t get an appointment go to the ER’: access to specialty care for publicly insured children. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 61(4), 394–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.10.030

Rittenhouse, D. R., Casalino, L. P., Shortell, S. M., McClellan, S. R., Gillies, R. R., Alexander, J. A., & Drum, M. L. (2011). Small and medium-size physician practices use few patient-centered medical home processes. Health Affairs30(8), 1575-1584. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2010.1210

Shi, L., & Singh, D. A. (2012). Delivering health care in America: A systems approach (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Shi, L., & Singh, D. A. (2019). Delivering health care in America: A systems approach. 7th edn. Boston MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Siddiqui, Z. K., Wu, A. W., Kurbanova, N., & Qayyum, R. (2014). Comparison of hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems patient satisfaction scores for specialty hospitals and general medical hospitals: Confounding effect of survey response rate. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 9(9), 590–593. https://doi.org/10.1002/jhm.2225

Spillman, B. C., Wolff, J., Freedman, V., & Kasper, J. (2014). Informal caregiving for older Americans: An analysis of the 2011 national study of caregiving. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. https://aspe.hhs.gov/reports/informal-caregiving-older-americans-analysis-2011-national-study-caregiving

Starfield, B. (1998). Primary care: Balancing health needs, services, and technology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stoimenoff, L., & Dunn, T. (2018). Urgent care industry white paper 2018 (unabridged). The essential role of the urgent care center in population health. Urgent Care Association. https://docplayer.net/135214322-Urgent-care-industry-white-paper-2018-unabridged-the-essential-role-of-the-urgent-care-center-in-population-health.html

The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. (2022). About post-acute and long-term care. https://paltc.org/?q=content/about-post-acute-and-long-term-care

United Health Group. (2020). Performing joint replacements in ambulatory surgery centers could help 500,000 people avoid overnight hospital stays and save $3 billion annually. https://www.unitedhealthgroup.com/content/dam/UHG/PDF/2020/UHG-Ambulatory-Surgery-Centers-Brief.pdf

Villasenor, S., & Krouse, H. J. (2016). Can the use of urgent care clinics improve access to care without undermining continuity in primary care? Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 28(6), 335–341. https://doi.org/10.1002/2327-6924.12314

Wang, Y. C., Chou, M. Y., Liang, C. K., Peng, L. N., Chen, L. K., & Loh, C. H. (2019). Post-acute care as a key component in a healthcare system for older adults. Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research, 23(2), 54–62. https://doi.org/10.4235/ agmr.19.0009

World Health Organization. (2023). Care process levels in dementia care coordination [primary/secondary/tertiary]. https://www.who.int/data/gho/indicator-metadata-registry/imr-details/5063


Selected content from:

  1. “Introduction to the U.S. Healthcare System” by Thomas A. Clobes is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 by-nc-sa. Chapters 3, 9, 10. https://scholarworks.calstate.edu/concern/educational_resources/nk322m064?locale=en
  2. Reprinted from United States: Health System Review 2020 , Vol 22(4), Ewout van Ginneken (ed.), Health Systems in Transition / Chapter 5 (pgs. 243, 246, 250-251, 254-260, 279)  / Copyright 2020. Accessed January 30, 2023. https://eurohealthobservatory.who.int/publications/i/united-states-health-system-review-2020

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Exploring the U.S. Healthcare System Copyright © 2023 by Karen Valaitis is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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